30 Aug

WHITWHAT? THE WHITWORTH SYSTEM (Moss Motors)

[It happens to me all the time.  The wrench won’t fit, it’s too small, so I get the next larger one and it won’t fit either, it’s too large.  Nothing in between?  What now, darn, it’s probably ‘Whitworth’.  If you play with old British cars, you have most likely run into this situation.  An interesting read with the morning coffee.  Unless you abhor auto parts??  Mark]

Most of us think of car parts in terms of carburetors, engines, transmissions, brakes, and so on. The most common part in any car isn’t really noticed at all until you take one apart. Even then you don’t think much about it until it comes time to put the car back together again and, suddenly, you discover that you don’t have quite as many as you should. I’m talking about the nuts and bolts that hold a car together.

To make matters more interesting, a good many of the cars we deal with don’t use nuts and bolts that can be purchased from the corner hardware store. Much maligned and misunderstood, the Whitworth hardware used on older British cars has an interesting history.

Threaded fasteners go back a long way. In 1568, the first practical screw cutting machine was invented by a French mathematician named Jacques Besson. After that, things took off…after a fashion. By 1611 the idea had caught on in England well enough for it to be mentioned in a book, the significant point being that the companion piece to any screw—the nut—was mentioned as well. While the concept was basically sound, in practice there were a few bugs to be worked out. In general, a screw is a threaded fastener that is turned into a threaded hole; a bolt passes through the hole and is secured with a nut on the other side. In the 1600’s putting something together was a real chore. Once you found a bolt you liked, you had to find a nut, and that was a matter of chance [Still is, in my garage . . . . Mark] since nobody had any idea of making the treads the same. Once you found a nut that fit, (well, sort of) the nut and bolt were tied together with string. Since the threads on any one fastener were unique, taking something apart and putting it back together again could be a lifetime occupation. Just be thankful that the car had not yet been invented.

This happy chaos continued until well into the industrial revolution, when Henry Maudslay perfected a lathe that made it possible to adjust the thread pitch of a screw. This made it possible to make large numbers of identical screws. The idea of making the bolts for one machine all the same seems to have caught on. at least with the folks who had to put them together.

Making threaded fasteners on a lathe is time consuming, and therefore expensive. In 1850 a man from New York named William Ward perfected a system for forming the threads on a bolt by heating it to 1600 degrees Fahrenheit, and then rolling it between two grooved dies. The grooves on the flat dies were forced into the bolt, and the threads were formed as the bolt rolled between the fixed and the moving die.

This same basic system is used today, the only difference being that the bolts are not heated before being rolled. “Cold” forming produces much more uniform threads, allowing closer tolerances, and because the bolts are not heated, they are stronger.

Even today, the development of this technology would not really matter if there were no national or international standards for threads on screws and bolts. We would still be buying nuts and bolts as matched pairs. The man responsible for the development of the first standards for the production of threaded fasteners Is none other than Joseph Whitworth. [Who knew?? Mark] In 1841, his paper, “A Uniform System of Screw Threads”, set forth a concept that was to revolutionize manufacturing.

His idea was simple:

  1. Each diameter of bolt or screw will have its own number of threads per inch (TPI)
  2. The angle between the side of one thread and the adjacent thread should be 55°.
  3. Both the crest and root of each thread should be rounded.
  4. The relationship of the pitch to the radius of the rounded portion of the thread is defined by a ratio of l/6th; in other words, the radius r = (1/6) x (pitch).

Finally, there was a system. If adopted, that would allow the fasteners used on one type of machine to be replaced with another “standard” fastener. The logic was hard to beat, and England adopted the system to the extent that by 1881 it was the effectively the British standard.

The Whitworth System was used as proposed for bolts and screws from 1/8″ to 4 1/4″ in shank diameter up to 1908, when an additional thread form was proposed—British Standard Fine (BSF). Presented by the British Engineering Standards Association, BSF was identical to the original Whitworth form except that the pitch was finer—meaning more threads per inch. Now a bolt with a diameter of 1/4 inch could have either 20 threads per inch (BSW) or 26 (BSF). The advantage of the finer thread pitch is two fold. A fine thread bolt is about 10% stronger than a coarse thread bolt of the same size and material.  [I knew this but I didn’t know why I knew this.  Mark]  Fine threaded fasteners also have greater resistance to vibration. Those of you who have worked on cars with Whitworth hardware will have noticed that almost all the hardware is BSF for these reasons. Why use any coarse threaded bolts at all? Coarse thread fasteners are well suited for use in tapped holes in material softer than the bolt (such as studs in aluminum cylinder heads), and they are easier to assemble. It’s almost impossible to cross thread a coarse threaded fastener by hand.

For sizes smaller than 1/8″, the British adopted a Swiss Standard thread form for small screws and called it British Association Thread (BA). This thread form was adopted in 1903. Like the Whitworth form, it has rounded crests and roots, but the angle between adjacent faces of the screw’s threads Is 47 1/2°. Instead of being sized by fractions of an inch, they are numbered OBA, 1BA, 2BA and so on up to 22BA. For some reason, the larger the number, the smaller the screw. Other than that, the system is analogous to our “machine screw” system where numbers are used (e.g. #6, #8, #10).

A question often asked (well, once in a while anyway) is why didn’t the US adopt the Whitworth System? As it turns out, we did. By 1860, most of Europe and the US were using the system. In 1864, however, the move to establish a “National” thread system was under way. William Sellers was instrumental in persuading the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia to set up a committee whose prime goal would be to set up national (meaning American) standards. Sellers, who made machine tools, was dissatisfied with the Whitworth System on several points: The 55° angle was hard to gauge and the rounded threads caused an uncertain fit between the nut and bolt. He also argued that the rounded threads were weaker than a system he proposed where the angle between the opposing faces was 60° (not Whitworth’s 55°), and the crests and roots were flattened. The Franklin Institute adopted Seller’s system, and by 1900 it was in use throughout the US and much of Europe. The American system had both line and coarse threads called, logically enough, American National Fine (ANF) and American National Coarse (ANC).

The Whitworth system is further complicated by its tool size designations. American tools (and European for that matter) are sized by the head of the bolt or the size of the nut. A 1/2″ wrench fits a bolt with a head 1/2″ across. A Whitworth wrench is sized according to the diameter of the shank of the bolt, not the head. A 1/4 W (Whitworth) wrench is actually a bit larger than a 1/2″ American wrench—0.525″ to 0.500″. As if that wasn’t enough, in 1924 it was decided that the heads of the Whitworth bolts were too large, so they were down-sized.

The “new” bolts and nuts were made so that the old tools could still be used, but on different bolts. The old 3/8W wrench now fit the 7/16″ bolt. To enable the tools to be used easily, they are marked with both sizes. The old size, which stands for the diameter of the bolt’s shank, is marked with a “W”. The new size is marked with a “BS”, which stands for the bolt size and consequently the new wrench size. For example, the old 3/8W wrench also fits the “new” 7/16″ bolt and is therefore also marked “7/16 BS”. The head of the bolt it fits is 0.600″ across the flats, larger than 19/32″ but smaller than 5/8″.  [I am so glad there isn’t a test at the end!  Mark]

Because the wrenches are unique, there are no American counterparts. Use of the closest American wrench will often result in the rounding of corners and the springing of the wrench jaws.

The Whitworth System, with its associated BS thread system, was in use by British automobile manufactures until 1948, when Canada, the US, and the United Kingdom adopted a “Unified Thread System” that incorporated features of Seller’s and Whitworth’s systems. Actually, the push to standardize an international thread system was initiated during the First World War. The necessity for a system that both American and English manufactures could use was a direct result of the war effort. The fact that the allies shared much of the same machinery and equipment made interchangeable parts essential. The issue was the subject of various international conferences from 1918 to 1948, with the 2nd World War playing the role of catalyst for the adoption of the Unified system. The Unified System was adopted by the British automobile industry on a large scale in 1956, when most of the common fasteners on the cars built that year were of the Unified Thread System. The fact that the major market for these cars was in the US was no doubt a major factor in the decision. The Unified System is basically the same as the American system in use—the two thread systems were American National Coarse (ANC) and American National Fine (ANF). They became the Unified coarse and fine. A few related industries, notably SU, did not make the switch, and used Whitworth and BS hardware until they ceased production.

The Unified System was not destined to last. Having seen that everyone could change over from one system to another, the International Standards Organization launched a campaign to replace the Unified system with a version of the metric system that originated in Europe. It has been slow going. Since 1966 there has only been a partial changeover to the ISO metric system in the American and British automotive industries.

The Whitworth system should not be viewed as a stumbling block invented by the English to keep us from putting their cars back together again once we’ve managed to take them apart. I don’t believe it has anything to do with our minor disagreement back in 1776 either. The Whitworth system made it possible to manufacture complex machinery on a large scale, and it made it possible to work on that machinery without having a full-time clerk keeping track of the different nuts and bolts. Each system takes some special wrenches and sockets, and you might have to think for a minute or two about which wrench to use, but heck, if it were easy, anybody could work on these cars.

18 Aug

Driving Innovation with Classically Inspired British Cars – Aug 2018 (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/)

As one of the world’s oldest makers of sports cars, Morgan Motor Company has found unique ways to stay ahead

It’s easy to spot a Morgan car in a line-up. The iconic vintage silhouette has nostalgic appeal, even if you aren’t especially motor-mad.

In a booming, increasingly tech-driven industry, these cars still speak to their roots. Established in 1910, the Morgan Motor Company is the oldest family-owned sports car manufacturer in the world.

But this legacy comes with a massive sense of responsibility. “There’s a real sense of stewardship running Morgan,” says chief executive Steve Morris, who took the helm in 2013.

Keeping our iconic shape allows people to relate to our cars, and strengthen our wider brand

“Having more than 100 years of experience in the automotive industry is a very powerful thing. Because of our history and where we’ve come from, we have a real sense of authenticity – and we really feel a responsibility to do our best for our audience.”

Though classic in style and handmade in the original factory in Malvern, these cars are all underpinned by modern automotive technology. This blend of old and new offers drivers an experience unlike any other. “Keeping our iconic shape allows people to relate to our cars and strengthen our wider brand,” says Mr Morris. “That’s very important.”

Road to success

Mr Morris joined the company aged 16 as a sheet metal apprentice, working his way up from the shop floor through to management. “There are many different routes into management, but I think I was very fortunate,” he says. “Being able to grow with Morgan, and having that grounding in the business itself, has helped me understand how the business ticks.”

I think in the next five years we’re going to see more change in the automotive industry than we’ve had in the past 100

Throughout his 35 years at the company, one thing that’s really stood out for Mr Morris is the loyalty of the customer base. “We’ve seen a lot of change but one of the fantastic things about working for Morgan has always been the friendliness of our wider audience,” he says.

“When you have that connection with them, they become your evangelists and your brand ambassadors.”

The business has tapped into this growing fan base. It now runs regular tours of the factory, which have been hugely successful. “We have 35,000 people paying to visit the factory each year. That in itself demonstrates a high level of enthusiasm for the brand – and that doesn’t happen overnight. That is part of our heritage.”

Wheels of change

But despite the dedicated customer base, being a niche manufacturer comes with a few challenges. “We’re still playing in an incredibly aggressive marketplace, with ever-changing technology,” says Mr Morris.

“I think in the next five years, we’re going to see more change in the automotive industry than we’ve had in the past 100, what with the onslaught of electrification, hybridisation and the pace of technology in general.

“At Morgan, we’re constantly trying to create and reinvent; I think we achieve that too. It’s interesting to talk to people who visit the factory regularly – even after a year’s interval, they’ll tell us how surprised they are at how things have changed.”

The Morgan Motor Company has seen more than a century of relentless change, though – and perhaps remaining true to its roots will ensure its survival. “I feel in some cases, we could be an ‘antidote’ to some of the things that are forced on the industry,” Mr Morris says.

“I’d like to think we’ll go from strength to strength, and we’ll continue to make cars that delight our customers.”

 

16 Aug

New (?) MOGSouth Supporter – Melvyn Rutter !!

Melvyn Rutter is back!!

Melvyn Rutter (and his business) have always been big supporters of MOGSouth.  Unfortunately, when our Newsletter died so did their advertisement.

Now Melvyn is back with a new advertisement on our website!

Melvyn’s advertisement provides a direct link to their main business website as well as a link to their extensive Morgan parts and maintenance services web site, https://mogparts.net.  His new parts website offers online shopping, parts and accessories for the all Morgans, to include the newer cars and the M3Ws.

While we have a great set of US based club supporters providing much of what we need to keep our Morgans on the road, there are times when Melvyn and his UK based business are desperately needed.  I have to admit I am a big fan.

Please go to http://www.mogsouth.com/supporters/ to see Melvyn’s new advertisement and follow the links to his websites.

 

14 Aug

Morgan’s Thrill On The Hill – 2018 Report from the Field

[Ken and Pat Kreuzer are visiting the UK and attended the 2018 Morgan Motor Company’s Thrill on the Hill.   They have also rented a more modern Plus 4 for their adventure.  

Here are a few words on the event and be sure to view the great pictures from their MMC Factory visit and the from the event. 

I am envious!!   Mark]

FYI, The Plus 4 we are renting is fun. I have to fold back the hood to get in.   At least its not held down by a dozen lift the dots and can be sealed from inside.

How many car companies would invite their customers, dealers, employees and local food and gift purveyors to a giant picnic at the factory?  Morgan, the only privately owned car company in the UK did just that this August. Celebrating 50 years of the Plus 8, and, unfortunately the end of the naturally aspirated V8 engined sports cars, the show featured a year by year display of the model starting with the 1968 prototype brought over from the states.

The factory and some UK dealers showed a number of cars ready to empty one’s wallet. Factory tours were available and some of the things we found interesting were crates being prepared for shipping the engines for US dealers to install in new traditional cars now available to us for the first time in years and a alloy skinned body also ready to come here for someone’s classic four seater. In the same shops that hand made wood framed bodys are made, Morgan have installed a 3D printer for making prototypes of new parts.

Managing director Steve Morris and the heads of design and marketing gave a lively Q and A about the company while keeping information about new models up their sleeve.

Live music and fireworks capped off a unique automotive event.

Don’t miss Ken and Pat’s great pictures of the event.  Click Here!

Ken and Pat Kreuzer

11 Aug

Final Details – 2018 MOGSouth Fall Meet, Augusta GA, 14 – 16 Sep.

FIRST THINGS FIRST Dorothy Needs to Know the following information for the Hotel, the Restaurant, the Hospitality Suite, etc.  

Please send her an email to moore_dorothy@bellsouth.net or call 678-513-2931, (c) 404-678-4236.  DO THIS NOW !!!

NAME:______________________________________________________

__(Check Mark for Yes) Staying at The Partridge Inn, 2110 Walton Way, Augusta GA 30904 – 706-737-8888

__(Check Mark for Yes) No hotel needed, NOT staying at the Partridge INN, but attending the Fall Meet

__(Check Mark for Yes)Bringing a Morgan

(If Yes) Year ________Model__________Color____________

__ Number of People for Dinner Saturday evening at The Cucina 503

 

 

DETAILED FALL MEET ITINERARY

Friday September 14, 2018

Hotel Arrival – The Partridge Inn, 2110 Walton Way, Augusta GA 30904

  • Registration/Check-In 3 PM
  • Parking – Lower Level of Parking Garage

Hospitality Room – The Cigar Bar – First Floor of Hotel (opens at 3:00 pm) No smoking allowed!!!

Dinner Options – (FYI, if not driving, book the Hotel shuttle)

  • Partridge Inn Bar and Grille with live local Jazz (second floor)
  • Raes Coastal Café (Mark Braunstein recommends)
  • Finch and Fifth Charcuterie
  • Ephesus Restaurant (Mediterranean)
  • Whiskey Bar Kitchen (Japanese and Burgers)

Evening Activities in Augusta                     

  • Hotel’s Cigar Bar (Hospitality Room) open until 10 PM
  • Hotel’s Roof Top Lounge open until 10 PM

 

Saturday September 15, 2018

Breakfast – 6-10 AM, included with your Partridge Inn Room (or $12.99 if not a guest)

9:15 AM‘Group Photo’ on stairs at Inn Front Patio

9:30 AMDepart for Washington, GA

  • Travel over the bridge at Clark Hill Lake
  • Travel through Lincolnton, GA
  • Rest Stop in Lincolnton (if needed)

11:15 Lunch Options

  • The Hot Box Food Truck 20R West Robert Toombs Ave open 11-9 Washington, GA..alfresco dining deck  706-678-4269 please park your Morgans together for photos, Restrooms available
  • The Square Café 22 W Square 706-678-5908 open 11-3
  • The Jockey Club 10 W  Public Square 706-678-1672 open 10-2
  • Cade’s Home Cooking 9 E Square 706-678-5586

12:00 PM – 1:30 PM – Jones Auto Museum, 312 Thompson Hwy 25 Cars in Mr. J. Jones private museum and 50 more cars in his 2 other buildings, approx. 4 miles outside of Washington.  Mr. Jones is opening his museum just for our group free of charge.  He will leave the gate open to the gravel road up to his car barn.  Collection began in 2005, restored Fords, Chevy 409, 55 Chevy Convertible, 70 Chevelle, 69 Chrysler Hemi, etc.  Photos allowed, but requests they not be “splashed” all over the internet.

12:00 PM until whenever – if not going to Auto Museum

  • Stay and see Historic Washington’s museums or just drive and/or walk the town
  • History Was Made Here! Three Beautifully restored house museums and library along with the Revolutionary Battlefield at Kettle Creek share the tales of this small city with a big history, one filled with legendary feats, prominent families, and innovative discoveries.
    • Though Washington is proud of their history, their present has just as much to offer. Historic downtown Washington is filled with businesses offering a variety of unique shopping, delicious food, and convenient service options.
    • Washington was briefly the State Capital of GA and is the place where the Confederacy voted to dissolve itself.
    • Highlights – The Washington Historical Museum open 10 – 5 PM, The Robert Toombs House open 10-5 PM, The Callaway Plantation open 10-5 PM, The Fitzpatrick Hotel
    • Washington Plantation B & B, Campbell – Jordan House, Bolton – Green Plantation and the Water Street Homes

Afternoon in Augusta

  • Canal Boat Tours
  • The RiverWalk along the Savannah River
  • The Augusta Commons
  • Broad Street Park
  • SouthStar Trolley Tours

Evening Activities

  • Hotel’s Cigar Bar (Hospitality Room) open at 3:00 PM
  • 6:30 PM – Dinner at Cucina 503, 502 Fury’s Ferry Road Suite 503, 762-994-0142, private dining room, full menu, separate checks, if not driving please book the shuttle in advance
    • 18 minutes from the Inn; 7.43 miles

Evening Activities in Augusta (after dinner)

  • Hotel’s Cigar Bar (Hospitality Room) open until 10 PM
  • Hotel’s Roof Top Lounge open until 10 PM

 

Sunday September 16, 2018

  • Breakfast from 6 am – 10am included with room, $12.99 if not a guest at the Inn
  • Fall Meet adjourned, check out time is 11:00 am
  • Stay and see Augusta’s Broad Street downtown and maybe ride the Canal Boats or walk the Riverwalk

Looking forward to seeing you all at The Partridge Inn!!

Glenn and Dorothy Moore